Volume 5, Issue 1, February 2016, Page: 22-29
Diabetic Foot Among Elderly at Zagazig City: Risk Factors and Foot Care Practices
Eman Shokry Abd-Allah, Gerontological Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig City, Egypt
Sabah Abdou Hagrass, Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig City, Egypt
Shimaa Salah Mohamed, Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig City, Egypt
Received: Jan. 24, 2016;       Accepted: Feb. 8, 2016;       Published: Feb. 29, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajns.20160501.14      View  4555      Downloads  149
Abstract
Background: Foot health problems are common in the elderly due to pathological changes in their feet. The aim of this study was to identify diabetic foot risk factors among the elderly at Zagazig City Subjects and methods; Analytic cross sectional study design was utilized. The study was conducted at Zagazig health insurance clinic for the elderly diabetic patients with purposive sample composed of (280) of the elderly diabetic patients. Tools, tool I, Interview questionnaire sheet composed of four parts (socio demographic characteristics, medical past &present history of diabetes, assessing patient foot care practice and assessment of risk factors of diabetic foot) and tool II, physical assessment of diabetic foot condition. Results it revealed that approximately one-half of the patients were 60-65 years old, only more than the third of studied patients had adequate foot care practice; the foot inspection revealed that the majority of them had abnormal foot and statistically significant relations between patients practice and their level of education, job type and income. The foot inspection revealed that the patients had no infection, no ulcer and no low blood flow had a higher percentage of normal examination. Conclusion The study found several factors associated with higher incidence of diabetic foot among the elderly diabetic patients including: low educational level, longer duration of diabetes, smoker, lack of foot care and poor footwear. Recommendations: Educate diabetic patients, about diabetic foot care practice through educational program to reduce the risk of complications.
Keywords
Risk Factors, Diabetic Foot, Elderly, Foot Care Practices
To cite this article
Eman Shokry Abd-Allah, Sabah Abdou Hagrass, Shimaa Salah Mohamed, Diabetic Foot Among Elderly at Zagazig City: Risk Factors and Foot Care Practices, American Journal of Nursing Science. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2016, pp. 22-29. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.20160501.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Al Sayah F., Soprovich A., Qiu W., Edwards A. L., and Johnson J. A. (2015): Diabetic Foot Disease, Self-Care and Clinical Monitoring in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: The Alberta's Caring for Diabetes (ABCD) Cohort Study. Can J Diabetes. 2015 Aug 1. pii: S1499-2671(15)00467-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2015.05.006. [Epub ahead of print.
[2]
Al-Kaabi J. M., Al Maskari F., Cragg P., Afandi B., and Souid A. K. (2015): Illiteracy and diabetic foot complications. Prim Care Diabetes. 2015 May 28. pii: S1751-9918 (15)00070-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2015.04.008. [Epub ahead of print].
[3]
Al-Rubeaan K., Al Derwish M., Ouizi S., Youssef A. M., Subhani S. N., Ibrahim H. M., and Alamri B. N. (2015): Diabetic foot complications and their risk factors from a large retrospective cohort study. PLoS One.; 10(5): e0124446. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124446. eCollection 2015.
[4]
Barr E. L., Browning C., and Lord S. R. (2007): Foot and leg problems are important determinants in functional status in community dwelling older people. Disab Rehabli J; 27: 917-23.
[5]
Biernacki P. J., Champagne M. T., Peng S., Maizel D. R., and Turner B. S. (2015): Transformation of Care: Integrating the Registered Nurse Care Coordinator into the Patient-Centered Medical Home. Popul Health Manag. 2015 Jan 29. [Epub ahead of print].
[6]
Busetto L., Luijkx K., Huizing A., and Vrijhoef B. (2015): Implementation of integrated care for diabetes mellitus type 2 by two Dutch care groups: a case study. BMC Fam Pract.; 16(1): 105. doi: 10.1186/s12875-015-0320-z.
[7]
Buysman E. K., Liu F., Hammer M., and Langer J. (2015): Impact of medication adherence and persistence on clinical and economic outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide: a retrospective cohort study. Adv Ther.; 32(4): 341-55. doi: 10.1007/s12325-015-0199-z. Epub 2015 Apr 2.
[8]
Central Agency for public Mobilization and Statistics [CAMAS], (2011): Population Census of Egypt: Cairo; 28: 50.
[9]
Chavan G. M., Waghachavare V. B., Gore A. D., Chavan V. M., Dhobale R. V., and Dhumale G. B. (2015): Knowledge about diabetes and relationship between compliance to the management among the diabetic patients from Rural Area of Sangli District, Maharashtra, India. J Family Med Prim Care.; 4(3): 439-43. doi: 10.4103/2249-4863.161349.
[10]
Chellan G., Srikumar S., Varma A. K., Kumar H., and Bal A. (2012): Foot care practice –The key prevent diabetic foot ulcer in India. The Foot Journal; 22(6): 298-302.
[11]
Desalu O. O., Salawu F. K., and Jimoh A. K. (2011): Diabetic foot care: self reported knowledge and practice among patients attending three tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. Ghana Medical Journal; 45(2): 60-65.
[12]
Du Y. F., Ou H. Y., Beverly E. A., and Chiu C. J. (2014): Achieving glycemic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: a critical comparison of current options. Clin Interv Aging; 9:1963-80.
[13]
Groner C. (2010): Diabetes experts focus on foot ulcer recurrence lower extremity rev; 9: 43.
[14]
Islam S., Harnarayan P., Cawich S. O., Budhooram S., Bheem V., Mahabir V., Ramsewak S., Aziz I., and Naraynsingh V. (2013): Epidemiology of diabetic foot infections in an eastern Caribbean population: a prospective study. Perm J.; 17(2): 37-40. doi: 10.7812/TPP/12-126.
[15]
Jiang Y., Wang X., Xia L., Fu X., Xu Z., Ran X., Yan L., Li Q., Mo Z., Yan Z., Ji Q., Li Q. (2015): A cohort study of diabetic patients and diabetic foot ulceration patients in China. Wound Repair Regen.; 23(2): 222-30. doi: 10.1111 /wrr.12263.
[16]
Kangas M., Vikman I., Nyberg L., Korpelainen R., Lindblom J. and Jms T. (2011): Comparison of real-life accidental falls in older people with experimental falls inmiddle-aged test. Geriatrics; 67(8): 20–25.
[17]
Khosravizade Tabasi H., Madarshahian F., Khoshniat Nikoo M., Hassanabadi M., and Mahmoudirad G. (2014): Impact of family support improvement behaviors on anti diabetic medication adherence and cognition in type 2 diabetic patients. J Diabetes Metab Disord.; 13(1): 113. doi: 10.1186/s40200-014-0113-2. eCollection 2014.
[18]
Lauterbach S., Kostev K., and Kohlmann T. (2013): Prevalence of diabetic foot syndrome and its risk factors in the UK. J Wound Care; 19: 333–337.
[19]
Lopez-Otin C., Blasco M. A., Partridge L., Serrano M., and Kroemer G. (2013): "The hallmarks of aging." Cell; 153(6): 1194-1217.
[20]
Losby J. L., House M. J., Osuji T., O'Dell S. A., Mirambeau A. M., Elmi J., Chappelle E., and Schlueter D. F. (2015): Initiatives to Enhance Primary Care Delivery: Two Examples from the Field. Health Serv Res Manag Epidemiol.; 2. pii: 2333392814567352.
[21]
Louise B., and Russell (2009): Time requirements for diabetes self-management. Too much for many? Journal of Family Practice.
[22]
Mayberry L. S., and Osborn C. Y. (2014): Dec Family involvement is helpful and harmful to patients' self-care and glycemic control. Patient Educ Couns.; 97(3): 418-25. doi: 10.1016 /j.pec.2014.09.011. Epub 2014 Sep 20.
[23]
Mendes J. J., and Neves J. (2012): Diabetic Foot Infections: Current Diagnosis and Treatment. The Journal of Diabetic Foot Complications; 4, Issue 2(1): 26-45.
[24]
Moxey P. W., Gogalniceanu P., and Hinchliffe R. J. (2011): Lower extremity amputations—a review of global variability in incidence. Diabet Med; 28: 1144–1153.
[25]
Napolitano F., Napolitano P., and Angelillo I. F. (2015): Collaborative Working Group. Medication adherence among patients with chronic conditions in Italy. Eur J Public Health. 2015 Aug 11. pii: ckv147. [Epub ahead of print]
[26]
National Foot Care Project [NFCP], (2003): Basic Foot Assessment Checklist. Available at website: http/ www.drsref.com.au/practice management/foot. assessment. Accessed on 10-12-2012.
[27]
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Strok [NINDS], (2011): Dementia information page. Senility Definition. Available at website http: //www.ninds.nih. gov/disorders/dementias/ dementia.htm accessed on 25-7-2013.
[28]
Nehring P., Makowski A., Mrozikiewicz-Rakowska B, Sobczyk-Kopcioł A., Płoski R., and Karnafel W. (2015): Risk factors of diabetic foot of neuropathic origin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Endokrynol Pol.; 66(1): 10-4. doi: 10. 5603/EP.2015.0003.
[29]
Nicolucci A., Cercone S., Chiriatti A., Muscas F., and Gensini G. (2015): A Randomized Trial on Home Telemonitoring for the Management of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther.; 17(8): 563-70. doi: 10.1089/dia.2014.0355. Epub 2015 Jul 8.
[30]
Peterman S. (2010): Steps toward Improved Foot Care to Prevent Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Nursing Consult Website. Available from http: //www.nursingconsult.com/das /stat/view/240435 2882/cup? nid=203387. accessed on 25-11-2014
[31]
Rajna O., and Alison S. (2006): Foot assessment in patients with diabetes Australian Family Physician; 35(6): 419-21.
[32]
Rocha R. M., Zanetti M. L., and Snatos M. A. (2009): Behavior and knowledge: Basis for prevention of diabetic foot. Acta Paul Enferm; 22(1): 17-23.
[33]
Saltoglu N., Yemisen M., Ergonul O., Kadanali A., Karagoz G., Batirel A., Ak O., Eraksoy H., Cagatay A., Vatan A., Sengoz G., Pehlivanoglu F., Aslan T., Akkoyunlu Y., Engin D., Ceran N., Erturk B., Mulazimoglu L., Oncul O., Ay H., Sargin F., Ozgunes N., Simsek F., Yildirmak T., Tuna N., Karabay O., Yasar K., Uzun N., Kucukardali Y., Sonmezoglu M., Yilmaz F., Tozalgan U., Ozer S., Ozyazar M2., KLIMIK Turkish Society, Diabetic Foot Study Group. (2015): Predictors for limb loss among patient with diabetic foot infections: an observational retrospective multicentric study in Turkey. Clin Microbiol Infect; 21(7): 659-64. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2015.03.018. Epub 2015 Apr 8.
[34]
Shin S. A., Kim H., Lee K., Lin V., Liu G., and Shin E. (2015): Effects of diabetic case management on knowledge, self-management abilities, health behaviors, and health service utilization for diabetes in Korea. Yonsei Med J.; 56(1): 244-52. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2015.56.1.244.
[35]
Skinner T. C., Bruce D. G., Davis T. M., and Davis W. A. (2014): Personality traits, self-care behaviours and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle diabetes study phase II. Diabet Med.; 31(4): 487-92. doi: 10.1111 /dme.12339. Epub 2013 Nov 18.
[36]
Stuart B. C., Dai M., Xu J., Loh F. H., and Dougherty J. (2015): Does good medication adherence really save payers money? Med Care; 53(6): 517-23.
[37]
Tol A., Shojaeezadeh D., Eslami A., Alhani F., Mohajeritehrani M., Baghbanian A., Sharifirad G. (2012a): Evaluation of self-care practices and relative components among type 2 diabetic patients. J Educ Health Promot.; 1: 19. doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.99219. Epub 2012 Jul 31.
[38]
Tran D. T., Jorm L. R., Havard A., Harris M. F., Comino E. J. (2015): Variation in the use of primary care services for diabetes management according to country of birth and geography among older Australians. Prim Care Diabetes. 2015 Aug 1. pii: S1751-9918(15)00098-4. doi: 10.1016/j. pcd.2015.07.001. [Epub ahead of print]
[39]
Wu L., Hou Q., Zhou Q., Peng F. (2015): Prevalence of risk factors for diabetic foot complications in a Chinese tertiary hospital. Int J Clin Exp Med.; 8(3): 3785-92. Collection 2015.
Browse journals by subject